Random images

Sustainable Agriculture In Oklahoma

Conservation Tillage

P1010074.jpg

Research plots were established at Stillwater and El Reno Oklahoma in the fall of 2006.  The El Reno site was chosen as an alternative to the Wheat Pasture Research Unit at Marshall, OK because of synergies with existing research, the ability to introduce a crop rotation, and support and involvement of county-level extension personnel. No-till and conventional-till wheat plots were sown on 12 September 2006 at El Reno, OK. Cattle grazed the plots from mid-October until late February.

 Forage data were collected on 11 December 2006. Conventional and no-till wheat forage yields averaged 3,030 and 2,000 kg ha-1, respectively. There were significant forage yield differences among the 20 wheat varieties tested, but the variety-by-tillage interaction was non-significant. We hypothesize that the lack of crop rotation negatively influenced the forage production in the no-till plots. To test this hypothesis, we have sown an area of winter canola and conventional and no-till plots will be sown in canola residue in the fall of 2007.

 The first hollow stem growth stage of wheat is the optimum timing for removal of cattle from wheat pasture. Conventional-till wheat plots at El Reno reached the first hollow stem stage of growth an average of four days earlier than the no-till plots at this same location. The differential between phenological development of no-till and conventional-till wheat plots was greatest in the early-maturing varieties. We hypothesize that cooler soil conditions in the no-till plots during late winter are responsible for slower phenological development in these plots. To test this hypothesis, we have purchased soil temperature probes and will monitor soil temperatures in future years.

P1010071.jpg

Extension/outreach activities have centered on training of county extension educators, extension publications, and producer field days. We conducted two in-service training sessions for county educators on no-till production systems and a combined total of 52 educators were in attendance. A no-till field day was held at the El Reno site in May of 2006 and over 100 farmers were in attendance. Sixty-five of the farmers participated in a voluntary survey at the end of the tour. Among other things, survey data revealed that attendees collectively farmed 58,760 acres of wheat and average estimated value of the information given at the field day was $13.55 per acre.

 We hosted a group of farmers at the El Reno, OK location to evaluate advanced experimental wheat lines in no-till and conventional-till dual-purpose wheat systems. OSU wheat breeder Dr. Brett Carver conveyed information on critical plant attributes that help ensure success in no-till wheat production systems. Growers then evaluated advanced experimental lines for these attributes and discussed their findings.

 Future direction:

 Grain yield will be collected from the El Reno site in June of 2007. Plot maintenance and data collection at the El Reno and Stillwater sites will continue in 2008 and 2009. In addition, we have established an on-site weather station and data logger.  We will use this device to measure soil moisture and temperature in no-till and conventional-till treatments. Dr. Chad Godsey (Cropping Systems Specialist with OSU) will be assisting in this endeavor and with the aggregate size and stability work that is scheduled for 2009.

 Extension/education efforts will continue to focus on timely publications, in-service training's, and field days. We are currently organizing a state-wide no-till meeting for January of 2008 and anticipate attendance of over 250 farmers.  We will showcase results from this project at the state-wide event.

  

4 Prod

 

 Increasing Sustainability of Southern Great Plains’ Agriculture Through No-till Production Systems.

This three-year, Southern-Region SARE-funded project is a collaboration among researchers at Oklahoma State University and Texas A&M university. Investigators represent a wide range of disciplines including plant science, soil science, entomology, and plant pathology.

 Project Summary

In the Southern Great Plains wheat is planted either with the intention of  producing grain only or with the intention of producing dual-purpose winter wheat that is available for grazing by livestock from late November until early March and then harvested for grain. Grain-only and dual-purpose wheat are extremely important to the agricultural economy of the southern Great Plains.  The proposed research and education project will be designed to address three major problems of growing winter wheat in the region.  The first problem is that conventional tillage is used for more than 95% of the dual-purpose wheat in the region. The second problem is the unique disease and insect pest issues that arise as a result of the wheat monoculture that dominates the southern Great Plains. The third problem is that the largest cash outlay for producing dual-purpose wheat is nitrogen fertilizer, and applied nitrogen fertilizer is less than 35% efficient under current management practices. 

 We propose to address these three problems by investigating the impact of no-till practices on wheat forage, grain yield components, insect pest and natural enemy abundance, and disease incidence and severity using both spatially temporally replicated trials in the southern Great Plains. Further, we will evaluate the validity of sensor-based nitrogen recommendations in no-till wheat production systems. We will determine the economics of no-till versus conventional tillage for dual-purpose wheat under conventional fall nitrogen application with nitrogen fertilizer amount based upon yield goals and with field-specific spring nitrogen application with rates based upon yield potential as measured by optical reflectance technology in late winter. Finally, we will use a combination of field days, training sessions, journal articles, and extension publications to disseminate our findings to relevant stakeholders.

 P1010323.jpg

Experiments to evaluate conventional-till and no-till wheat production systems were initiated in the fall of 2006 at two locations in Oklahoma and two locations in TX. Data collection for our research objectives has just begun and all project research components are proceeding in a satisfactory manner. Extension / outreach initiatives began in the fall of 2006 with two extension educator in-service trainings, a new no-till fact sheet, on-farm demonstrations, and a series of no-till workshops.

 2006-2007 Progress Report

Objectives / Performance Targets

Our long-tem objective is to increase the sustainability of farming and ranching operations in the southern Great Plains by increasing the adoption of no-tillage production practices and decreasing the reliance on commercial fertilizer sources. This project will move us closer to this long-term goal by addressing the following objectives:

 1. Determine the impact of switching from conventional to no-till production practices on fall forage production and yield components of winter wheat in grain-only and dual-purpose wheat production systems.

2. Monitor the incidence and severity of wheat diseases as well as the presence and abundance of insect pests and their natural enemies in conventional and no-till, dual-purpose wheat production systems.

 3. Determine if sensor-based nitrogen recommendations developed for conventional tillage systems are valid in no-tillage, dual-purpose wheat production systems.

 4. Determine the economics of no-till versus conventional tillage for dual-purpose wheat under both conventional fall nitrogen application with rates based upon yield goals and field-specific spring nitrogen application with rates based upon yield potential as measured in late winter by optical reflectance technology.

5. Educate southern Great Plains wheat producers on how no-tillage production practices can enhance both grain-only and wheat/stocker-cattle integrated production systems.

Accomplishments / Milestones

Research plots were initiated at El Reno and Homestead, OK and Abilene and Prosper, TX in the fall of 2006.  Crop establishment was successful at all locations and research apparatuses (pitfall traps, rain gauge, soil moisture sensors, etc.) were successfully implemented in October of 2006. At the time of this report, only preliminary research data have been collected. At the time of our 2007 annual report, we will have gathered data from a complete cropping season and will be able to provide more information on progress towards our research objectives.

 Report of Activities and Findings for Objective 2

Our primary goals are to (1) compare aphid numbers and their estimated impact on forage and grain yields between no-till and conventional plots, (2) compare natural enemy numbers and their estimated impact on aphid populations between no-till and conventional plots, and (3) compare the diversity of natural enemies between no-till and conventional plots. 

As described in our protocol, we have sampled Oklahoma and Texas plots for aphids.  Aphid numbers have been low region-wide as indicated in the Table below, and counts were not initiated until aphid presence was observed.  Included in the data below are dates when aphids were found; no aphids were detected at Okeene (OK) and Abilene (TX) during sampling.  When aphids were present, populations were higher in Conventional Tillage Plots.  We are continuing to sort and count aphid and natural enemy samples, and plan to resample each location during the spring    

 PC100387.jpg

Extension and outreach efforts have been met with great enthusiasm by our stakeholders. Specific accomplishments for 2006 include:

A no-till advisory group was created in the fall of 2006. This group includes representatives from Oklahoma Cooperative Extension, NRCS, OK Soil Conservation Service, and no-till farmers. Three large-scale no-till grower meetings were held in the fall of 2006 with a combined attendance of over 750 stakeholders. In addition, several county-level meetings were held. This cooperation dialogue among cooperative extension, NRCS, and the state soil conservation service is a new phenomenon in Oklahoma and has proven very effective thus far.

We conducted six hands-on, no-till planter adjustment and calibration clinics for farmers and extension educators. Dr. Taylor organized these clinics in response to concerns among new no-till farmers regarding equipment selection and set-up.

We conducted three in-service training sessions for extension educators. The first two were on no-till production systems and a combined total of 52 educators were in attendance. The second was on sensor-based nitrogen recommendations and approximately 35 educators were in attendance. Similar in-service trainings will be conducted in future years and data gathered from the research objectives will be disseminated.

Information on sensor-based nitrogen recommendations was delivered to an audience of over 300 farmers in Abilene, TX.

We hosted a group of farmers at the El Reno, OK location to evaluate advanced experimental wheat lines in no-till and conventional-till dual-purpose wheat systems. OSU wheat breeder Dr. Brett Carver conveyed information on critical plant attributes that help ensure success in no-till wheat production systems. Growers then evaluated advanced experimental lines for these attributes and discussed their findings.

nramp1

 Increasing Profitability of the Wheat/Stocker Cattle Enterprise

(Expanded Wheat Pasture)

This is a USDA-CSREES-funded ongoing project. Project investigators are Jeff Edwards and Brett Carver (Department of Plant and Soil Sciences), Gerald Horn (Animal Science Department) and Francis Epplin (Agricultural Economics).The purpose of this initiative is to develop science and technologies, uniquely adapted wheat varieties, decision-support economic models, and extension education programs to increase profitability of the many dual-purpose wheat (i.e., wheat grain and stocker cattle) enterprises in Oklahoma and the southern Great Plains, and to strengthen the economies of rural communities.

Uses of Federal FY 2007 Funding:  Research and education programs will be conducted in the following areas:

Develop supplementation programs that will decrease production risks of growing cattle on wheat pasture and increase profitability of the enterprise.

Characterize the physiological bases for differences in finishing performance of feeder cattle off wheat pasture.

Through system-targeted selection, develop and publicly release new wheat cultivars which maximize profitability of dual-purpose wheat enterprises.

Identify the biologic and economic effects of important cultural and management practices in dual-purpose wheat enterprises.

Determine the economic consequences of alternative strategies for managing cropland suitable for dual-purpose winter wheat production.

Determine persistence, yield, and nutritive value of selected forage legumes interseeded into cool-season perennial forage grasses.

  • Develop crop simulation models by using remote satellite technologies, vehicle-mounted sensors, and quantitative light-interception measurements to elucidate the physiological parameters that determine wheat forage mass and composition.

nramp6.jpg  nramp5.jpg

OSU Wheat Variety Testing Program

 This is an ongoing project that is funded yearly by the Oklahoma Wheat Commission and Oklahoma Wheat Research Foundation. The main objectives of this project are to:

 1.   Compare and contrast the grain yield and test weight of approximately 18 commercially released varieties and 2 to 4 candidate cultivars at approximately 18 locations throughout Oklahoma.

2.   Compare adaptability of cultivars to no-till planting systems.

3.   Evaluate disease incidence and severity at any of the locations where disease pressure is high enough to differentiate among varieties.

4.   Determine fall forage production at 2 or more locations.

5.   Compare and contrast variety responses to foliar fungicide application at the Lahoma and Apache locations.

6.   Evaluate other variety characteristics such as grain protein, high temperature germination sensitivity, date of first hollow stem, and harvest index at select locations.

7.   Provide approximately 40 demonstration strip seed sets (10-14 varieties each) for county extension personnel.

8.   Disseminate information through print and web-based media outlets.

nramp7.jpg

 Assessing Our Biofuel Production Potential

This two-year project is funded through the O.S.U. TIP program. Researchers include Jeff Edwards, Chad Godsey, and Daren Redfearn in the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences at O.S.U. and Do Mornhinweg at the USDA-ARS facility in Stillwater. Objectives of this project are to:

Develop baseline agronomic recommendations for hulless barley in Oklahoma using on-farm research/demonstration plots. Areas of concentration will include fertility, planting date, seeding rate, grazing management, and pest management. – Jeff Edwards will coordinate this portion of the project.

Evaluate hulless barley varieties for adaptability to Oklahoma

  • Jeff Edwards will coordinate this portion of the project in conjunction with Drs. Mornhinweg and Porter at USDA-ARS.

    Develop baseline agronomic recommendations for oilseed crops in Oklahoma using on-farm research/demonstration plots. Efforts will be focused on sunflower and peanuts in both full season and double cropping situations. Cotton in a double cropping environment will also be evaluated. – Chad Godsey will coordinate this portion of the project.

    Evaluate switchgrass biomass production potential at approximately 50 sites throughout Oklahoma. These sites will each be approximately 1 acre in size and will be managed by county agents. Biomass production potential will be determined by forage harvest conducted by county agents and sent to state staff at Stillwater for analysis. – Daren Redfearn will coordinate this part of the project.

nramp3.jpg  nramp10.jpg

Hand Held Sensor Based Technology and Nitrogen Ramp Information

For the latest information in the hand held senor based technology and the use of nitrogen ramps to identify proper levels of nitrogen application please visit....

www.nue.okstate.edu

nramp11.jpg

 

Document Actions
« November 2017 »
November
SuMoTuWeThFrSa
1234
567891011
12131415161718
19202122232425
2627282930